Training and Testing on our Data for Deep Learning





Welcome to part seven of the Deep Learning with Neural Networks and TensorFlow tutorials. We've been working on attempting to apply our recently-learned basic deep neural network on a dataset of our own. In the previous tutorial, we created the create_sentiment_featuresets.py file, which will take our string sample data and convert it to vectors. Now, we're going to use this and incorporate it into our previous model.

The code we used from that tutorial:

import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data
mnist = input_data.read_data_sets("/tmp/data/", one_hot = True)

n_nodes_hl1 = 500
n_nodes_hl2 = 500
n_nodes_hl3 = 500

n_classes = 10
batch_size = 100

x = tf.placeholder('float', [None, 784])
y = tf.placeholder('float')

def neural_network_model(data):
    hidden_1_layer = {'weights':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([784, n_nodes_hl1])),
                      'biases':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl1]))}

    hidden_2_layer = {'weights':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl1, n_nodes_hl2])),
                      'biases':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl2]))}

    hidden_3_layer = {'weights':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl2, n_nodes_hl3])),
                      'biases':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl3]))}

    output_layer = {'weights':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl3, n_classes])),
                    'biases':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_classes])),}


    l1 = tf.add(tf.matmul(data,hidden_1_layer['weights']), hidden_1_layer['biases'])
    l1 = tf.nn.relu(l1)

    l2 = tf.add(tf.matmul(l1,hidden_2_layer['weights']), hidden_2_layer['biases'])
    l2 = tf.nn.relu(l2)

    l3 = tf.add(tf.matmul(l2,hidden_3_layer['weights']), hidden_3_layer['biases'])
    l3 = tf.nn.relu(l3)

    output = tf.matmul(l3,output_layer['weights']) + output_layer['biases']

    return output

def train_neural_network(x):
    prediction = neural_network_model(x)
    cost = tf.reduce_mean( tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(prediction,y) )
    optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer().minimize(cost)
    
    hm_epochs = 10
    with tf.Session() as sess:
        sess.run(tf.initialize_all_variables())

        for epoch in range(hm_epochs):
            epoch_loss = 0
            for _ in range(int(mnist.train.num_examples/batch_size)):
                epoch_x, epoch_y = mnist.train.next_batch(batch_size)
                _, c = sess.run([optimizer, cost], feed_dict={x: epoch_x, y: epoch_y})
                epoch_loss += c

            print('Epoch', epoch, 'completed out of',hm_epochs,'loss:',epoch_loss)

        correct = tf.equal(tf.argmax(prediction, 1), tf.argmax(y, 1))

        accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct, 'float'))
        print('Accuracy:',accuracy.eval({x:mnist.test.images, y:mnist.test.labels}))

train_neural_network(x)

The above code predicted hand-written digits, but we're going to just stuff our own data in there and see what happens. The only things we need to change are how we feed the data in, and that's it. Converting the data to the format we needed was the majority of the work. To begin, we need to import the create_sentiment_featuresets file we created in the previous tutorial:

from create_sentiment_featuresets import create_feature_sets_and_labels

Next, we can comment out the importing of the mnist input data. Then, we replace the mnist variable with:

train_x,train_y,test_x,test_y = create_feature_sets_and_labels('/home/psyber/Desktop/tf_tuts/pos.txt','/home/psyber/Desktop/tf_tuts/neg.txt')

I will also change the node counts per layer to 1500, instead of 500.

Now, do we need to change anything in the neural_network_model? Nope, that stays the same. How about in train_neural_network? Yep, we're going to have to change the references to the mnist data, in the training and testing, and we also need to do our own batching code. If you recall in the tutorial where we covered the deep neural network, we made use of the mnist.train.next_batch functionality that was just built in for us. We don't have that here. Luckily, this is not a complex task.

Thus, within the neural_network_model function, let's modify the epoch for loop:

		for epoch in range(hm_epochs):
			epoch_loss = 0
			i=0
			while i < len(train_x):
				start = i
				end = i+batch_size
				batch_x = np.array(train_x[start:end])
				batch_y = np.array(train_y[start:end])

				_, c = sess.run([optimizer, cost], feed_dict={x: batch_x,
				                                              y: batch_y})
				epoch_loss += c
				i+=batch_size
				
			print('Epoch', epoch+1, 'completed out of',hm_epochs,'loss:',epoch_loss)

Notice here that we're just using i to iterate through the data, and our range is wherever we are with i, to the i+batch_size value. That's really all we need to do to do batching. Now, with these batches, we do everything else the same.

Now, we just need to slightly modify the correct and accuracy vars

		correct = tf.equal(tf.argmax(prediction, 1), tf.argmax(y, 1))
		accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct, 'float'))

		print('Accuracy:',accuracy.eval({x:test_x, y:test_y}))

Now the full code is:

from create_sentiment_featuresets import create_feature_sets_and_labels
import tensorflow as tf
#from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data
import pickle
import numpy as np

train_x,train_y,test_x,test_y = create_feature_sets_and_labels('/path/to/pos.txt','/path/to/neg.txt')

n_nodes_hl1 = 1500
n_nodes_hl2 = 1500
n_nodes_hl3 = 1500

n_classes = 2
batch_size = 100
hm_epochs = 10

x = tf.placeholder('float')
y = tf.placeholder('float')

hidden_1_layer = {'f_fum':n_nodes_hl1,
                  'weight':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([len(train_x[0]), n_nodes_hl1])),
                  'bias':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl1]))}

hidden_2_layer = {'f_fum':n_nodes_hl2,
                  'weight':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl1, n_nodes_hl2])),
                  'bias':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl2]))}

hidden_3_layer = {'f_fum':n_nodes_hl3,
                  'weight':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl2, n_nodes_hl3])),
                  'bias':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl3]))}

output_layer = {'f_fum':None,
                'weight':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_nodes_hl3, n_classes])),
                'bias':tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([n_classes])),}


# Nothing changes
def neural_network_model(data):

    l1 = tf.add(tf.matmul(data,hidden_1_layer['weight']), hidden_1_layer['bias'])
    l1 = tf.nn.relu(l1)

    l2 = tf.add(tf.matmul(l1,hidden_2_layer['weight']), hidden_2_layer['bias'])
    l2 = tf.nn.relu(l2)

    l3 = tf.add(tf.matmul(l2,hidden_3_layer['weight']), hidden_3_layer['bias'])
    l3 = tf.nn.relu(l3)

    output = tf.matmul(l3,output_layer['weight']) + output_layer['bias']

    return output

def train_neural_network(x):
	prediction = neural_network_model(x)
	cost = tf.reduce_mean( tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(prediction,y) )
	optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(learning_rate=0.001).minimize(cost)

	with tf.Session() as sess:
		sess.run(tf.initialize_all_variables())
	    
		for epoch in range(hm_epochs):
			epoch_loss = 0
			i=0
			while i < len(train_x):
				start = i
				end = i+batch_size
				batch_x = np.array(train_x[start:end])
				batch_y = np.array(train_y[start:end])

				_, c = sess.run([optimizer, cost], feed_dict={x: batch_x,
				                                              y: batch_y})
				epoch_loss += c
				i+=batch_size
				
			print('Epoch', epoch+1, 'completed out of',hm_epochs,'loss:',epoch_loss)
		correct = tf.equal(tf.argmax(prediction, 1), tf.argmax(y, 1))
		accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct, 'float'))

		print('Accuracy:',accuracy.eval({x:test_x, y:test_y}))

	    
train_neural_network(x)

This gives us about 62% accuracy. Feel free to test with many more layers, more nodes...etc. You will likely find that the impact is minimal, and getting out of the 60s is futile.

If you recall from the beginning on the deep learning series, I said it was mostly dataset sizes that were important. In the next tutorial, we're going to use a much larger dataset to see if that makes any significant difference.

The next tutorial:






  • Practical Machine Learning Tutorial with Python Introduction
  • Regression - Intro and Data
  • Regression - Features and Labels
  • Regression - Training and Testing
  • Regression - Forecasting and Predicting
  • Pickling and Scaling
  • Regression - Theory and how it works
  • Regression - How to program the Best Fit Slope
  • Regression - How to program the Best Fit Line
  • Regression - R Squared and Coefficient of Determination Theory
  • Regression - How to Program R Squared
  • Creating Sample Data for Testing
  • Classification Intro with K Nearest Neighbors
  • Applying K Nearest Neighbors to Data
  • Euclidean Distance theory
  • Creating a K Nearest Neighbors Classifer from scratch
  • Creating a K Nearest Neighbors Classifer from scratch part 2
  • Testing our K Nearest Neighbors classifier
  • Final thoughts on K Nearest Neighbors
  • Support Vector Machine introduction
  • Vector Basics
  • Support Vector Assertions
  • Support Vector Machine Fundamentals
  • Constraint Optimization with Support Vector Machine
  • Beginning SVM from Scratch in Python
  • Support Vector Machine Optimization in Python
  • Support Vector Machine Optimization in Python part 2
  • Visualization and Predicting with our Custom SVM
  • Kernels Introduction
  • Why Kernels
  • Soft Margin Support Vector Machine
  • Kernels, Soft Margin SVM, and Quadratic Programming with Python and CVXOPT
  • Support Vector Machine Parameters
  • Machine Learning - Clustering Introduction
  • Handling Non-Numerical Data for Machine Learning
  • K-Means with Titanic Dataset
  • K-Means from Scratch in Python
  • Finishing K-Means from Scratch in Python
  • Hierarchical Clustering with Mean Shift Introduction
  • Mean Shift applied to Titanic Dataset
  • Mean Shift algorithm from scratch in Python
  • Dynamically Weighted Bandwidth for Mean Shift
  • Introduction to Neural Networks
  • Installing TensorFlow for Deep Learning - OPTIONAL
  • Introduction to Deep Learning with TensorFlow
  • Deep Learning with TensorFlow - Creating the Neural Network Model
  • Deep Learning with TensorFlow - How the Network will run
  • Deep Learning with our own Data
  • Simple Preprocessing Language Data for Deep Learning
  • Training and Testing on our Data for Deep Learning
    You are currently here.
  • 10K samples compared to 1.6 million samples with Deep Learning
  • How to use CUDA and the GPU Version of Tensorflow for Deep Learning
  • Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) basics and the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) cell
  • RNN w/ LSTM cell example in TensorFlow and Python
  • Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) basics
  • Convolutional Neural Network CNN with TensorFlow tutorial
  • TFLearn - High Level Abstraction Layer for TensorFlow Tutorial
  • Using a 3D Convolutional Neural Network on medical imaging data (CT Scans) for Kaggle
  • Classifying Cats vs Dogs with a Convolutional Neural Network on Kaggle
  • Using a neural network to solve OpenAI's CartPole balancing environment